General works, Computer science and Information


"For the news industry - but also far beyond - it is a strict requirement being able to assert something about the content of a news item, to apply so called metadata. This could be achieved either by free-text human language (e.g. by a headline or a caption) or by codes, NewsCodes. Codes have the advantage that they can be easily shared among users and as each code requires an explicit and comprehensive definition not only the codes but also their semantics can be shared among users.


"Die Oberbegriffsdatei (OBG) ist eine hierarchisierte Sammlung von Objektbezeichnungen für kulturhistorische Museen. Sie ist in 45 Hauptgruppen und darunter liegende Untergruppen aufgeteilt. Die Einträge (Objektbezeichnungen) werden seit den 1980er Jahren aus rund 150 Museen in Deutschland zusammengetragen. Initiiert wurde das Projekt von der Landesstelle für die nichtstaatlichen Museen in Bayern. Seit 2008 wird die OBG im webbasierten Vokabularverwaltungstool xTree geführt."

"The Oberbegriffsfile (OBG) is a hierarchical collection of object names for cultural history museums, divided into 45 main groups and subgroups Of the Landesstelle for the non-state museums in Bavaria. Since 2008, the OBG is run in the web-based vocabulary administration tool xTree. "


"Die Buchbestände der Universitätsbibliothek der TU München werden ab Erscheinungsjahr 1982 - neben der verbalen Sacherschließung mit Schlagwörtern - auch klassifikatorisch erschlossen. Als Klassifikation wird die TUM-Systematik genutzt. Die TUM-Systematik besteht aus 52 Hauptgruppen mit jeweils bis zu 999 Systemstellen. Die Hauptgruppen werden durch einen dreistelligen, mnemotechnischen Buchstabencode bezeichnet, die Unterklassen durch einen dreistelligen Zifferncode. Die Systematik ist (nicht streng) hierarchisch aufgebaut."

"The book stock of the University Library of the Technical University of Munich will be developed from the year 1982 onwards, in addition to the verbal classification of subjects by subject headings are characterized by a three-digit, mnemonic letter code, the subclasses by a three-digit numeric code, the systematic (not strictly) hierarchical. "

Systematik zur Inventarisierung kulturgeschichtlicher Bestände in Museen

"Diese sog. 'Hessische Systematik' ist eine Systematik für kulturhistorische Museen. Sie besteht aus 18 Hauptgruppen. Jede Hauptgruppe hat Untergruppen (bisher bis zu 12), und zu jeder Untergruppe werden beispielhaft Namen von konkreten Objekten angeführt, die zu dieser Untergruppe gehören."

"These so-called. 'Hessian system' is a system of cultural and historical museums. It consists of 18 main groups. Each main group has subgroups (previously up to 12), and each subgroup names are led by concrete objects example, belong to this subgroup. "

Library of Congress Classification

"The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a classification system that was first developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to organize and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress. Over the course of the twentieth century, the system was adopted for use by other libraries as well, especially large academic libraries in the United States. It is currently one of the most widely used library classification systems in the world.

Association for Computing Machinery Computing Classification System

"ACM's first classification system for the computing field was published in 1964. Then, in 1982, the ACM published an entirely new system. New versions based on the 1982 system followed, in 1983, 1987, 1991, and 1998. The 2012 scheme utilizes a new poly-hierarchical structure and a more in-depth approach than the 1998 version. It no longer uses the letter-and-number coding of the previous versions. The old scheme has been mapped to the new, and both the 1998 and 2012 terms are available on Citation Pages of all indexed articles in the ACM Digital Library.

Integrative Levels Classification

"The Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) is a knowledge organization system featuring experimental innovations. Although drawing from the heritage of bibliographic classifications, it is different from most of them in allowing to represent any combination of concepts without the ties of traditional disciplines. Phenomena of the world are listed in the ILC schedule according to the natural sequence of integrative levels; each concept can then be freely combined with others by meaningful relationships (facets).

Social History and Industrial Classification

"SHIC is a subject classification widely used by UK museums. It was created nearly 20 years ago by the SHIC Working Party which continues to develop it today. The first published edition appeared in 1983 and a revised second edition was published in 1993 with further updates in 1996. The Social History and Industrial Classification (SHIC) is designed to make links between a wide variety of museum material - objects, photographs, archival material, tape recordings, information files - according to the sphere of human activity with which they are primarily associated.