"CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL to enable characterization of the nature or type of citations, both factually and rhetorically, and to permit these descriptions to be published on the Web. The citations characterized may be either direct and explicit (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirect (e.g. a citation to a more recent paper by the same research group on the same topic), or implicit (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, or in cases of plagiarism). CiTO contains the object property cito:cites and its sub-properties, and its inverse property cito:isCitedBy, from the original Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO v1.6. Upon the creation of version 2.0 of CiTO, a number of new sub-properties of cito:cites were added, and the inverse properties of all the sub-properties of cito:cites were created, all of which are sub-properties of cito:isCitedBy. The ontology has also been integrated with the SWAN Discourse Relationships Ontology by making cito:cites a sub-property of http://purl.org/swan/2.0/discourse-relationships/refersTo. Restrictions of domain and range present in the previous version of CiTO were removed from the object properties when creating CiTO v 2.0, permitting its independent use in other contexts, in addition to conventional bibliographic citations."