u3m: trade

Combined Nomenclature

"The Combined Nomenclature is the goods classification used within the EU for the purposes of foreign trade statistics. It is also used by Directorate General 'Taxation and Customs Union' of the European Commission for customs duty purposes. The classification is maintained by Eurostat for the statistical aspects and by Taxation and Customs Union DG for the tariff aspects. The classification is based on the Harmonized System (HS) which it sub-divides where necessary for purposes of external trade, agricultural regulation and customs duties.

Thema

"Thema is intended for use by all parts of the book trade: unlike other book trade subject classifications, it aims to be globally applicable. And in contrast to various library classifications that are used internationally, it is tailored for commercial use within the trade. It is a flexible standard that allows each market to retain its unique cultural voice while still presenting a unified subject hierarchy that rationalises book classification.