DataCite Metadata Schema

"The DataCite Metadata Schema is a list of core metadata properties chosen for the accurate and consistent identification of a resource for citation and retrieval purposes, along with recommended use instructions. The resource that is being identified can be of any kind, but it is typically a dataset. We use the term 'dataset' in its broadest sense. We mean it to include not only numerical data, but any other research data outputs."

Citation Typing Ontology

"CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL to enable characterization of the nature or type of citations, both factually and rhetorically, and to permit these descriptions to be published on the Web. The citations characterized may be either direct and explicit (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirect (e.g. a citation to a more recent paper by the same research group on the same topic), or implicit (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, or in cases of plagiarism).